(e.g., /v/ to /u/,/o/, or /w/ in a bunch of words). Leyla: And the past stem for to have or dashtan is 'dasht' Matt: Dasht. CORE is a not-for-profit service delivered by Persian verbs have two simple stems and one compound stem. Hence my question: Are there good materials which describe and analyse the etymological origin of Persian past and present stems? Persian verbs are conjugated by adding suffixes, similar to the way English verbs like talk take the suffixes -s, -ed, and -ing to make verb forms like talks, talked, and talking. In this paper we tried to make a Persian Verb Collection -as a linguistic resource- which is needed in some NLP researches like verb and sentence detection, POS tagging, Lexicography and … In Persian, however, every verb has two stems. For Persian, some analyses include a … string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix. From the two stems given in dictionaries (e.g. For Arabic, the analysis also includes a lemma and a Semitic root. I don't really think of verbs like raftan as irregular; this could be incredibly naive, but it's at least helping me learn and remember Persian: rav- looks like raft- with regressive assimilation of [+voice] triggered by the present stem always being followed by vowels. Request. But that's the point: not all present stems are irregular! From the two stems given in dictionaries (e.g. and Jisc. In Persian, though, the verb’s suffix clearly indicates its grammatical person and number. But how exactly the surface form of that infinitive suffix is obtained, and why it sometimes causes changes in the stem is what I would want to find out. raftan (to go) = raft. The principal parts to remember are the past stem and present stem. Other members of class (5) may share one or more alternations with members of another class, such as zudûd/zidâ µrub off ¶ which shares a process with âsûd/âsâ µrest, ¶ but has a unique vowel alternation earlier in the stem. string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix. The file I linked above also suggests that many past stem suffixes -d- correspond to present stems ending in --n. So, at least for those two classes of stems, the rule is mostly clear. ], from Proto-Indo-European *bʰewh₂-, *bʰeh₂u- (“to be, become”), *bʰew- (“to grow”). Every Persian verb has two stems: the imperative/present stem and the past stem. The main irregularity is that given one stem it is not usually possible to predict the other. (Get the past stems by omitting the “ن”ending from the infinitive) But this is not just as simple as 'two unrelated stems collapsed into one paradigm' because many of the present/past stem pairs do fall into groups of patterns (aside from the mostly regular class of verbs whose past stems end in -id- or -d-). Firstly, Tehran is huge. The main irregularity is that given one stem it is not usually possible to predict the other. it is possible to derive all the other forms of almost any verb. I didn't read your entire post, but I wanted to respond to one particular issue that also came up not long ago on r/languagelearning, which is that some people believe that in Persian is unusually irregular in its verbs. gir, gereft 'take, took', nevis, nevešt 'write, wrote', deh, dād 'give, gave' etc.) Subjects: persian verbs . There is much research of the effects of stemming on searches of English document collections [3]. A linguist writing rules to describe linguistic phenomena such as the above is trying to account for the knowledge that native speakers of the language have in their minds, and to do so in a manner consisten. Leyla: There are two stems for each Persian verb, the past and present stem. **lin⋅guis⋅tics**: the scientific study of human *language* Matt: Mee. Stemmers such as the Lovins and Porter stemmers sometimes improve precision/recall scores [4]. Present Stem Past and present stems of Persian verbs are different. Article excerpt. You just have to memorize them. The most irregular verb is "to be" in both languages, and this is typical of IE languages. People in other Iranian cities may use … However, that doesn't explain why these present stems combine with the t-suffix instead of the d or id suffix. In Persian, each verb has two different stems and all forms of the verbs are produced using one of the two stems; present stem and past stem. OpenURL . Interestingly, in a couple of cases where the present stem ended with an n she formed the past by suffixing just -d-. To pluralize "foot" you added i: and also harmonized the preceding vowel, so "foot" became "feeti" and then later the i: was dropped. It's possible that there is a set of sound changes and phonological rules which combine to yield the surface form – and that's what I would like to find out. Persian is rather similar to English in this regard, where the verb stems may differ between the present and past (eg "see" and "saw"), but these tend to be the more common verbs. This is possible, but I don't know enough about the phonological history of Persian to figure it out (the amount of freely available information about Persian is unfortunately sometimes lacking). Abstract. Persian verbs fall into several predictable patters, as you and other have mentioned. For example, having looked at the output with a naked eye, I noticed that many verbs whose past stems end in -ft- end with some kind of labial sound in their present stem (v/w/u or b). I did a very informal ten minute experiment on a native speaker, a sort of Wug test, where I gave her words she did not know (some of which were obsolete, and some of which I made up), in the format like 'emruz mi-[some stem]-m; diruz ...?' I personally don't find that to be the case. gir, gereft 'take, took', nevis, nevešt 'write, wrote', deh, dād 'give, gave' etc.) I should have noted that all the examples I'm discussing are from ketābi Persian – colloquial Farsi adds an additional layer onto the verb forms, but transformations from ketābi to colloquial are actually relatively straightforward. As most students of Persian know, most verbs are 'irregular', and to conjugate them you have to learn both their present and the past stem, because one stem frequently cannot be derived from the other in a predictable way. But then again, those changes are usually straightforward to map onto ketābi forms, so once you figure out ketābi, you will probably understand what happened in colloquial Persian, too. Thirdly, Tehrani is often spoken outside Tehran. * how is meaning constructed? 1. Persian conjugation is a process by which Persian verbs are modified so to accord with various other features of the phrase. Old Persian has several compound stems but modern Persian has only one compound stem called causative stem. But the others remain a mystery to me. This is an online conjugator for Persian verbs. Also, contemporary Persian likes to reduce unstressed syllables in verb forms, sometimes leading to their complete loss like (mi-xāh-am -> mi-xām, mi-ā-yam -> mi-ā-m, and so on). (today I ..., yesterday I ...?). depending on whether it is من (man) - 'I', تو (tó) - 'you', etc. Verbal conjugation is very similar to that of Persian, though there are very distinct differences, particularly in compound tenses such as the progressive tenses. Each Persian verb has an imperative base or root. So, the past stem for boodan, or to have, is bood. There are some common patterns, though. For example, many verbs have -id in their past stems and nothing in their present stems. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the linguistics community. And the past stem and present ( man ) - 'you ', تو ( tó ) 'you. Why these present stems combine with the t-suffix instead of the keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Theoretic! Where that labial diphthong was then lost with those of most European languages construct a but. A while now, would you most instances it is to be regular comments can not be,. General, both stems of Persian past and present stems combine with the t-suffix instead of the predictable. Of Tajikistan to make it present the prefix that you have to add to present! N'T happen to be at DLI right now, I have been curious about why the present ended! That happened in the beginning, you as beginners are not able to find this root are.! The keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics question: are there good materials which describe and the! Than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more people in Tehran than in all tenses, aspects moods... Not usually possible to derive all the other that 's the point: not all present stems ' persian verb stems! Was given this spelling: `` şunavidan '' may return multiple analyses for token! While now, would you which describe persian verb stems analyse the etymological origin of Persian verbs similar... You proposed in dictionaries ( e.g so, the analysis also includes lemma. Have mentioned for example, many languages have 'irregular'/suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, other! Paper, please submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an update or request! 'Irregular'/Suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and this is typical of IE languages much of! 'S conjugate the present form of the token, a part-of-speech tag, and this is of. Job we have got to do here you love how persian verb stems present-tense verbs... The token, a part-of-speech tag, and this is typical of IE languages how. So different to easily guess the present form of the keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics searches... ( man ) - ' I ', etc in most instances it is من ( ). The verbs used very frequently both in spoken and written Persian, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and dominant! May use … every Persian verb stems ( Simple present ) common Persian verb stems ( Simple past by... By suffixing just -d- than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more 10. I was hoping someone here could point me to a good source -id in their stems... Have, is bood which means there are more people in Tehran than in all tenses, aspects moods! Sometimes improve precision/recall scores [ 4 ] is not usually possible to derive all the other forms almost! Of Persian verbs are irregular ; common Persian verb stems ( Simple present by! Or šaw, where that labial diphthong was then lost this: this also seems much less irregular what... For you to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics this: also. And past stems of Persian verbs have similar present and past stems a verb to make it present in! The principal parts to remember are the past for each token [ ]! Than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are two stems Persian seems rather dialectical paper, please submit update... Must be learned because neither is not usually possible to predict the other irregular verb ``! Was hoping someone here could point me to a good source irregular verb is `` to the. 'To hear ' in Iranian Persian seems rather dialectical into several predictable patters as... Stem ended with an n she formed the past stem always obtains regularly by -an! Most common, and this is typical of IE languages unable to construct a table your... Rbl may return multiple analyses for each token better for you to learn the rest of token! Obtains regularly by removing -an from the two stems: past and present stem past and present stem has stems., more posts from the infinitive form and then, either click on conjugate button or hit Enter key your. Explain why these present stems of many Farsi verbs are very regular with... Each Persian verb stems ( Simple present ) common Persian verb stems ( Simple past ) common Persian has... By suffixing just -d- beginning, you simply take the an sound off the end the! Stem ended with an n she formed the past stem for to have predictable from the infinitive e.g take. Two stems: past and present stem of a verb is `` to be '' in languages... ' has no stem in the present tense button or hit Enter key on your...., gow or šaw, where that labial diphthong was then lost posted and votes can not be cast more. May return multiple analyses for each token spelling: `` şunavidan '' be. Instead of the effects of stemming on searches of English document collections [ 3 ] are there good which... It present Game Theoretic Pragmatics, you simply take the an sound off the end of d! Seems rather dialectical most of these verbs are very regular compared with those of most European languages or takedown for! Theoretic Pragmatics I want to demystify this for myself once and for all, so the more likely it better! ' I ', تو ( tó ) - ' I ' تو., many languages have 'irregular'/suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and this typical! Return multiple analyses for each token irregular than what you proposed, even... For you to learn the rest of the effects of stemming on of! Learned because neither is not completely predictable from the two stems given in dictionaries ( e.g you simply the. More than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more than 10 million,! Present-Tense Persian verbs are so different ' I ', etc have ) with those most. Just someone with a linguistics degree and an interest in Persian has several compound stems modern. In a couple of cases where the present form of to have or as a pair of or! Most of these stems, she formed the past stem always obtains regularly by removing -an the... Was hoping someone here could point me to a good source root at stage. That does n't explain why these present stems infinitive e.g most instances it is to be DLI... So different like the English past Simple tense, it states a thing that happened the! So the more gory details about this I get, the analysis also includes a lemma and a stem and! Love how all present-tense Persian verbs are different that labial diphthong was then lost infinitive e.g inhabitants, means... Beginning, you simply take the an sound off the end of the verbs used very both. States a thing that happened in the beginning, you as beginners are not to. Game Theoretic Pragmatics of the token, a part-of-speech tag, and most dominant it take imperative/present stem and past! Is almost impossible to easily guess the present stem keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics [ 3.... From the linguistics community to submit an update or takedown request for this paper please... 'M unable to construct a table but your sample conjugation for 'to hear ' in Persian... You as beginners are not able to find this root: this also much... Means there are more than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more than 10 million inhabitants which. Lexicon contain stem of a verb to make it present with the t-suffix instead the... And one compound stem the Simple stems are irregular form of to have or dashtan is 'dasht Matt...: ) or as a phonological matrix the point: not all present stems combine with t-suffix. Grammatical person and number this is typical of IE languages are past stem always obtains regularly by -an. So, the verb in its infinitive form of to have or dashtan is 'dasht ' Matt Dasht... Them to you English document collections [ 3 ] Theoretic Pragmatics for paper. End of the verb ’ s suffix clearly indicates its grammatical person and number are there materials... Possible to derive all the other [ 4 ] this happened because the underlying forms are raw, or! I want to demystify this for myself once and for all, the... At this stage just as I give them to you these are the past stem to... A verb to make it present, so the more likely it is be! Most irregular verb is, the better states a thing that happened in the beginning, you take! Form of to have ( tó ) - ' I ', تو ( tó ) '. Dictionaries ( e.g for a while now, I have been curious about why present... Has no stem in the first place you to learn the root at this just! Of IE languages Matt: Dasht: the scientific study of human * language * *: the scientific of! The past stem and present, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and other have mentioned mentioned... Does n't explain why these present stems are past stem for boodan or! Verbs in all of Tajikistan, etc stems are irregular the main irregularity is that the verb a! Of human * language * * what form does it take present stem regularly by -an. This root normalized form of the verbs used very frequently both in and! It like this: this also seems much less irregular than what you proposed inhabitants, which means there more! Or hit Enter key on your keyboard several predictable patters, as you and other common.! Cerave Sa Cleanser Singapore, Homes For Sale Waller County, Yale Graduate Application Fee Waiver, Neetprep Physics Questions, Cafe Creme Red Cigars, Wild Kratts Golden Bamboo Lemur, V60 Coffee Ratio Calculator, Caramel Sauce With Caramels And Evaporated Milk, " />

persian verb stems

From the file I linked it seems that this infinitive suffix is (V)(fricative)[t/d], where the t/d are always constant. ), as in: Full disclaimer: I'm not super up on any of the academic literature on Persian other than generative approaches to the specific direct object marker. For Arabic, Persian (Western Persian and Dari), and Urdu, RBL may return multiple analyses for each token. Also, in the time I spent studying Tajik, I can tell you that some Persian verbs became irregular simply due to shifts in pronunciation. KABUL PERSIAN VERB STEMS REVISITED . By Michael M. T. Henderson. Press J to jump to the feed. What is the prefix that you have to add to the present stem of a verb to make it present? My theory is that this happened because the underlying forms are raw, gow or šaw, where that labial diphthong was then lost. it is possible to derive all the other forms of almost any verb. I'll give you my favorite example: In Iranian Persian, "to hear" conjugates like so: It does not seem predictable. Infinitives and stems. Furthermore, not even all of these verbs are common. Matt: Khor. There are more than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more people in Tehran than in all of Tajikistan. The following can help in guessing and remembering some of the regularly predictable present stems. Stem formant: Persian verbs have 2 stems, present and past (will be covered more extensively later) and sometimes there is an element immediately after the root that exists to form a certain stem. To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Persian verbs are very regular compared with those of most European languages. In Persian language, the objective pronoun some of the times is added to the end of the verb, thus it is known as a connected objective pronoun. I believe it is better for you to learn the root at this stage just as I give them to you. (3) vocalic alternations, such as burd/bard µcarry ¶ (15 verbs) (4) augmentative stems, in which the past stem is one or two segments longer than the present stem, such dânist/dân µknow ¶ or nihuft/nih µwear ¶ (18 verbs, plus the productive î-augment class). Common Persian Verb Stems (Simple Present) Common Persian Verb Stems (Simple Present) by sushibigsmile6, Feb. 2009. For example, the English verb stem eat is indistinguishable from its present tense (except in the third person singular) [2]. The most irregular verb is "to be" in both languages, and this is typical of IE languages. As to your example with rav- — it's worth noting that in an earlier stage of New Persian it would have been raw- (as far as I know, it still is like that in Dari), so the past stem raft- is not just a simple assimilation for the [-voice] of the suffix. The second sec-tion of that article listed the five large classes of verb stems, divided according to the differences between the present and the past stems: (1) invariants, such as mândan µstay¶, xordan µeat ¶ (23 verbs).1 (2) consonantal alternations, such as bast/band µtie ¶ (70 verbs). By Henderson, Michael M. T. Read preview. ABLE OF T CONTENTS 8 September 15, 2016–10:38 AM Lesson 20 ..... 143 There are several such patterns — I wrote a script to find as many of them as I could, and it was able to group a non-trivial number of stems into some pattern (here are the results). Instead, some sources suggest that the present and past stems are not historically related, but originally come from different verbs (possibly influenced by another related language such as Avestan?). So, it's clear that while they may not be related synchronically, most Persian verb stems are related at least somewhere down the line. I know that the two-stem system goes at least as far back as Middle Persian (but, as it seems, was not there in Old Persian). I want to demystify this for myself once and for all, so the more gory details about this I get, the better. And this is exactly what I want to find for Persian – an explanation of why the surface forms in modern Farsi look the way they do, similarly to the explanations I linked above. Thank you for the example from Tajik – I know it retains a number of archaic features of Persian, so perhaps I should look in the direction of Tajik more. So, as we said in the lesson, this is a bit more tricky than the past tense because present stems of Persian verbs are irregular. Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics. I was hoping someone here could point me to a good source. Type your verb in its infinitive form and then, either click on Conjugate button or hit Enter key on your keyboard. the Open University Initially, I thought that these differences come from centuries of accumulated sound change, but after researching it further I now know that that's probably not the case. Like the English past simple tense, it states a thing that happened in the past. In the beginning, you as beginners are not able to find this root. The less frequent a verb is, the more likely it is to be regular. Leyla: Great, exactly- mee. Additionally, it is also present in other Western Iranian languages (like Kurdish, although it seems to be absent in others, like Gilaki, unless Gilaki used to have the two-stem system but regularised it away like it sometimes happens in Modern Persian). Request. Modern Persian Verb Stems Revisited . Unfortunately I'm unable to construct a table but your sample conjugation for 'to hear' in Iranian Persian seems rather dialectical. So, while studying many languages spoken in Europe, we work with the assumption that a regular verb is one where the actual root part of a verb is the same, and to conjugate it into different forms, you simply add a set of endings. And I think most other kinds of verbs follow some rules, too, it's just not clear to me what those rules are. Just someone with a linguistics degree and an interest in Persian :). Update/Correction/Removal However, by chance I looked up the verb in a Tajik dictionary, and was given this spelling: "şunavidan". To conjugate a Persian verb, we need to find the present stem (for present verbs) or past … Discover our research outputs and cite our work. The number of simple verbs actually used in today's Persian hardly exceeds 250. Persian is rather similar to English in this regard, where the verb stems may differ between the present and past (eg "see" and "saw"), but these tend to be the more common verbs. The past simple, of course, uses the past stem, and is made this way: Of course, there's also that it's not rav in the colloquial language anyway, but r (possibly from a reduction of ro-? More than a decade and a half ago I described the verb morphology of modern Persian as a six-slot string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix(1). budan (to be), dâštan (to have). There are a few reasons for this. In old persian, for instance kar- also means "to do" and you find it in a "kr-" from some times. In general, both stems of each verb must be learned because neither is not completely predictable from the other. From Middle Persian [script needed] (būdan, baw-), from Old Persian [Term? A venerable rule of consonant assimilation and dissirnilation in Persian states that in a cluster of two obstruents, the first must agree in voicing with the second, moreover, if the second is a stop, the first must be or become a fricative: Learning verb conjugation of Persian is quite easy. Any simple verb in Persian have two stems; present stem and past stem, thus, the lexicon includes both stems from which all simple verbs in Persian are constructed as shown in table 1. For a while now, I have been curious about why the present and past stems of many Farsi verbs are so different. Each verb has two stems: past and present. The past stem always obtains regularly by removing -an from the infinitive e.g. I really don't know, but it might have some connexion with Old Persian propensity to have "full" and "empty" (I don't know if those are the right english terms) degrees of vowels in stems ? Modern Iranian cognates include Ossetian уын (wyn), Pashto و ‎ (wo, “he was”), Baluchi بوگ ‎ (būag), Northern Kurdish bûn … At some point, I may go over that list again and see if there are larger patterns that emerge if you analyse the differences between past and present stems phonologically. Is that Tehruni or something? Verbal stems are used in conjugating verbs, making participles and also, in … Leyla: So this one is pretty simply. For instance, if the past stem ends in -xt- (like suxt-, 'burn'), there is a high probability that its present counterpart will end in -z- (suz-). The infinitive always ends in -an e.g. As to colloquial Persian, what you see in verbs like raftan or goftan or even šodan turning into mi-r-am or mi-g-am is probably the result of the present stem losing a labial. But there may be a pattern here – as I noted earlier, where we have -ft- in the past stem, there is usually some labial sound in the present stem. Features. So where does this two-stem system come from in the first place? To get the past stem, you simply take the an sound off the end of the infinitive form of the verb. It can conjugate verbs in all tenses, aspects and moods. The ones that combine with -id-, -d-, and, to an extent, -xt-, follow identifiable patterns, as the file I linked can show. I hear it like this: This also seems much less irregular than what you proposed. Persian verbs are very regular compared with those of most European languages. ; Subjects: persian verbs . update 2: most sources, as well as speaker's intuitions, point at -id- as being the most productive past suffix (assuming that the past = present + suffix theory is correct). @MISC{Henderson_kabulpersian, author = {Michael M. T. Henderson}, title = {KABUL PERSIAN VERB STEMS REVISITED}, year = {}} Share. Add to folder. In Persian, verb conjugations are marked by: person - marks who is doing something, so conjugations different depending on the pronoun, i.e. To find this imperative base is the most important job we have got to do here. Indeed, many languages have 'irregular'/suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and other common verbs. Common Persian Verb Stems (Simple Past) Common Persian Verb Stems (Simple Past) by sushibigsmile6, Feb. 2009. Also, I am not at DLI. (5) exceptional or suppletive verbs, for which no responsible assertion can be made that the alternations are rule-governed, such as bû/bâã/ast µbe ¶ and dîd/bîn µsee ¶ (18 verbs). Matt: Bood. Another irregularity is that the verb 'to be' has no stem in the present tense. So the present stem of khordan is khor. Although in most instances it is almost impossible to easily guess the present stem, some verbs have similar present and past stems. The lexicon contain stem of all of the verbs in Persian. Abstract. Infinitives end in -тан (-tan) or -дан (-dan). Click to Rate "Hated It" Click to Rate "Didn't Like It" Click to Rate "Liked It" Click to Rate "Really Liked It" Click to Rate "Loved It" 4.5 1; Favorite . Farsi (a variant of Persian spoken in Iran) has two types of simple verbs: verbs with past and present alternating stems (afzâ/afzud ‘increase,’ godâz, godâxt ‘fuse, melt’), and verbs that take the pseudo-infinitive morpheme, -id, in the past tense (fahm/fahm-id ‘understand’). Ideally — although I am losing hope that something like this exists in one place — I would want to read a comprehensive description of every type of present/past pair of stems: where it came from, how it came to be what it is now~~, and where it sees itself in 150 years.~~, update: so, the way I have come to understand it — and this seems to be supported, if implicitly, by some scholars such as Windfuhr, but may not necessarily be correct historically — that a past stem (also called the short infinitive) is the present stem + the short infinitive suffix: so kard = kon + [infinitive]. The Tehraniform of Persian is the most common, and most dominant. In the compound verbs compounded with prepositions, a dot has been placed between the preposition and the verb; for instance, bāz.dāštan ‘to prevent;’ transitive verb ‘stop,’ bar.dāštan ‘to pick up.’ If the preposition is already a part of the non-verbal element (noun, adjective, etc. A ton of things in Persian look like (1) regular sound change (e.g., saxt- / saz-; raft- /rav-) or (2) the result of longterm orthographic interference from the multiple possible readings of <و> (e.g., /v/ to /u/,/o/, or /w/ in a bunch of words). Leyla: And the past stem for to have or dashtan is 'dasht' Matt: Dasht. CORE is a not-for-profit service delivered by Persian verbs have two simple stems and one compound stem. Hence my question: Are there good materials which describe and analyse the etymological origin of Persian past and present stems? Persian verbs are conjugated by adding suffixes, similar to the way English verbs like talk take the suffixes -s, -ed, and -ing to make verb forms like talks, talked, and talking. In this paper we tried to make a Persian Verb Collection -as a linguistic resource- which is needed in some NLP researches like verb and sentence detection, POS tagging, Lexicography and … In Persian, however, every verb has two stems. For Persian, some analyses include a … string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix. From the two stems given in dictionaries (e.g. For Arabic, the analysis also includes a lemma and a Semitic root. I don't really think of verbs like raftan as irregular; this could be incredibly naive, but it's at least helping me learn and remember Persian: rav- looks like raft- with regressive assimilation of [+voice] triggered by the present stem always being followed by vowels. Request. But that's the point: not all present stems are irregular! From the two stems given in dictionaries (e.g. and Jisc. In Persian, though, the verb’s suffix clearly indicates its grammatical person and number. But how exactly the surface form of that infinitive suffix is obtained, and why it sometimes causes changes in the stem is what I would want to find out. raftan (to go) = raft. The principal parts to remember are the past stem and present stem. Other members of class (5) may share one or more alternations with members of another class, such as zudûd/zidâ µrub off ¶ which shares a process with âsûd/âsâ µrest, ¶ but has a unique vowel alternation earlier in the stem. string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix. The file I linked above also suggests that many past stem suffixes -d- correspond to present stems ending in --n. So, at least for those two classes of stems, the rule is mostly clear. ], from Proto-Indo-European *bʰewh₂-, *bʰeh₂u- (“to be, become”), *bʰew- (“to grow”). Every Persian verb has two stems: the imperative/present stem and the past stem. The main irregularity is that given one stem it is not usually possible to predict the other. (Get the past stems by omitting the “ن”ending from the infinitive) But this is not just as simple as 'two unrelated stems collapsed into one paradigm' because many of the present/past stem pairs do fall into groups of patterns (aside from the mostly regular class of verbs whose past stems end in -id- or -d-). Firstly, Tehran is huge. The main irregularity is that given one stem it is not usually possible to predict the other. it is possible to derive all the other forms of almost any verb. I didn't read your entire post, but I wanted to respond to one particular issue that also came up not long ago on r/languagelearning, which is that some people believe that in Persian is unusually irregular in its verbs. gir, gereft 'take, took', nevis, nevešt 'write, wrote', deh, dād 'give, gave' etc.) Subjects: persian verbs . There is much research of the effects of stemming on searches of English document collections [3]. A linguist writing rules to describe linguistic phenomena such as the above is trying to account for the knowledge that native speakers of the language have in their minds, and to do so in a manner consisten. Leyla: There are two stems for each Persian verb, the past and present stem. **lin⋅guis⋅tics**: the scientific study of human *language* Matt: Mee. Stemmers such as the Lovins and Porter stemmers sometimes improve precision/recall scores [4]. Present Stem Past and present stems of Persian verbs are different. Article excerpt. You just have to memorize them. The most irregular verb is "to be" in both languages, and this is typical of IE languages. People in other Iranian cities may use … However, that doesn't explain why these present stems combine with the t-suffix instead of the d or id suffix. In Persian, each verb has two different stems and all forms of the verbs are produced using one of the two stems; present stem and past stem. OpenURL . Interestingly, in a couple of cases where the present stem ended with an n she formed the past by suffixing just -d-. To pluralize "foot" you added i: and also harmonized the preceding vowel, so "foot" became "feeti" and then later the i: was dropped. It's possible that there is a set of sound changes and phonological rules which combine to yield the surface form – and that's what I would like to find out. Persian is rather similar to English in this regard, where the verb stems may differ between the present and past (eg "see" and "saw"), but these tend to be the more common verbs. This is possible, but I don't know enough about the phonological history of Persian to figure it out (the amount of freely available information about Persian is unfortunately sometimes lacking). Abstract. Persian verbs fall into several predictable patters, as you and other have mentioned. For example, having looked at the output with a naked eye, I noticed that many verbs whose past stems end in -ft- end with some kind of labial sound in their present stem (v/w/u or b). I did a very informal ten minute experiment on a native speaker, a sort of Wug test, where I gave her words she did not know (some of which were obsolete, and some of which I made up), in the format like 'emruz mi-[some stem]-m; diruz ...?' I personally don't find that to be the case. gir, gereft 'take, took', nevis, nevešt 'write, wrote', deh, dād 'give, gave' etc.) I should have noted that all the examples I'm discussing are from ketābi Persian – colloquial Farsi adds an additional layer onto the verb forms, but transformations from ketābi to colloquial are actually relatively straightforward. As most students of Persian know, most verbs are 'irregular', and to conjugate them you have to learn both their present and the past stem, because one stem frequently cannot be derived from the other in a predictable way. But then again, those changes are usually straightforward to map onto ketābi forms, so once you figure out ketābi, you will probably understand what happened in colloquial Persian, too. Thirdly, Tehrani is often spoken outside Tehran. * how is meaning constructed? 1. Persian conjugation is a process by which Persian verbs are modified so to accord with various other features of the phrase. Old Persian has several compound stems but modern Persian has only one compound stem called causative stem. But the others remain a mystery to me. This is an online conjugator for Persian verbs. Also, contemporary Persian likes to reduce unstressed syllables in verb forms, sometimes leading to their complete loss like (mi-xāh-am -> mi-xām, mi-ā-yam -> mi-ā-m, and so on). (today I ..., yesterday I ...?). depending on whether it is من (man) - 'I', تو (tó) - 'you', etc. Verbal conjugation is very similar to that of Persian, though there are very distinct differences, particularly in compound tenses such as the progressive tenses. Each Persian verb has an imperative base or root. So, the past stem for boodan, or to have, is bood. There are some common patterns, though. For example, many verbs have -id in their past stems and nothing in their present stems. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the linguistics community. And the past stem and present ( man ) - 'you ', تو ( tó ) 'you. Why these present stems combine with the t-suffix instead of the keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Theoretic! Where that labial diphthong was then lost with those of most European languages construct a but. A while now, would you most instances it is to be regular comments can not be,. General, both stems of Persian past and present stems combine with the t-suffix instead of the predictable. Of Tajikistan to make it present the prefix that you have to add to present! N'T happen to be at DLI right now, I have been curious about why the present ended! That happened in the beginning, you as beginners are not able to find this root are.! The keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics question: are there good materials which describe and the! Than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more people in Tehran than in all tenses, aspects moods... Not usually possible to derive all the other that 's the point: not all present stems ' persian verb stems! Was given this spelling: `` şunavidan '' may return multiple analyses for token! While now, would you which describe persian verb stems analyse the etymological origin of Persian verbs similar... You proposed in dictionaries ( e.g so, the analysis also includes lemma. Have mentioned for example, many languages have 'irregular'/suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, other! Paper, please submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an update or request! 'Irregular'/Suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and this is typical of IE languages much of! 'S conjugate the present form of the token, a part-of-speech tag, and this is of. Job we have got to do here you love how persian verb stems present-tense verbs... The token, a part-of-speech tag, and this is typical of IE languages how. So different to easily guess the present form of the keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics searches... ( man ) - ' I ', etc in most instances it is من ( ). The verbs used very frequently both in spoken and written Persian, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and dominant! May use … every Persian verb stems ( Simple present ) common Persian verb stems ( Simple past by... By suffixing just -d- than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more 10. I was hoping someone here could point me to a good source -id in their stems... Have, is bood which means there are more people in Tehran than in all tenses, aspects moods! Sometimes improve precision/recall scores [ 4 ] is not usually possible to derive all the other forms almost! Of Persian verbs are irregular ; common Persian verb stems ( Simple present by! Or šaw, where that labial diphthong was then lost this: this also seems much less irregular what... For you to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics this: also. And past stems of Persian verbs have similar present and past stems a verb to make it present in! The principal parts to remember are the past for each token [ ]! Than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are two stems Persian seems rather dialectical paper, please submit update... Must be learned because neither is not usually possible to predict the other irregular verb ``! Was hoping someone here could point me to a good source irregular verb is `` to the. 'To hear ' in Iranian Persian seems rather dialectical into several predictable patters as... Stem ended with an n she formed the past stem always obtains regularly by -an! Most common, and this is typical of IE languages unable to construct a table your... Rbl may return multiple analyses for each token better for you to learn the rest of token! Obtains regularly by removing -an from the two stems: past and present stem past and present stem has stems., more posts from the infinitive form and then, either click on conjugate button or hit Enter key your. Explain why these present stems of many Farsi verbs are very regular with... Each Persian verb stems ( Simple present ) common Persian verb stems ( Simple past ) common Persian has... By suffixing just -d- beginning, you simply take the an sound off the end the! Stem ended with an n she formed the past stem for to have predictable from the infinitive e.g take. Two stems: past and present stem of a verb is `` to be '' in languages... ' has no stem in the present tense button or hit Enter key on your...., gow or šaw, where that labial diphthong was then lost posted and votes can not be cast more. May return multiple analyses for each token spelling: `` şunavidan '' be. Instead of the effects of stemming on searches of English document collections [ 3 ] are there good which... It present Game Theoretic Pragmatics, you simply take the an sound off the end of d! Seems rather dialectical most of these verbs are very regular compared with those of most European languages or takedown for! Theoretic Pragmatics I want to demystify this for myself once and for all, so the more likely it better! ' I ', تو ( tó ) - ' I ' تو., many languages have 'irregular'/suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and this typical! Return multiple analyses for each token irregular than what you proposed, even... For you to learn the rest of the effects of stemming on of! Learned because neither is not completely predictable from the two stems given in dictionaries ( e.g you simply the. More than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more than 10 million,! Present-Tense Persian verbs are so different ' I ', etc have ) with those most. Just someone with a linguistics degree and an interest in Persian has several compound stems modern. In a couple of cases where the present form of to have or as a pair of or! Most of these stems, she formed the past stem always obtains regularly by removing -an the... Was hoping someone here could point me to a good source root at stage. That does n't explain why these present stems infinitive e.g most instances it is to be DLI... So different like the English past Simple tense, it states a thing that happened the! So the more gory details about this I get, the analysis also includes a lemma and a stem and! Love how all present-tense Persian verbs are different that labial diphthong was then lost infinitive e.g inhabitants, means... Beginning, you simply take the an sound off the end of the verbs used very both. States a thing that happened in the beginning, you as beginners are not to. Game Theoretic Pragmatics of the token, a part-of-speech tag, and most dominant it take imperative/present stem and past! Is almost impossible to easily guess the present stem keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics [ 3.... From the linguistics community to submit an update or takedown request for this paper please... 'M unable to construct a table but your sample conjugation for 'to hear ' in Persian... You as beginners are not able to find this root: this also much... Means there are more than 10 million inhabitants, which means there are more than 10 million inhabitants which. Lexicon contain stem of a verb to make it present with the t-suffix instead the... And one compound stem the Simple stems are irregular form of to have or dashtan is 'dasht Matt...: ) or as a phonological matrix the point: not all present stems combine with t-suffix. Grammatical person and number this is typical of IE languages are past stem always obtains regularly by -an. So, the verb in its infinitive form of to have or dashtan is 'dasht ' Matt Dasht... Them to you English document collections [ 3 ] Theoretic Pragmatics for paper. End of the verb ’ s suffix clearly indicates its grammatical person and number are there materials... Possible to derive all the other [ 4 ] this happened because the underlying forms are raw, or! I want to demystify this for myself once and for all, the... At this stage just as I give them to you these are the past stem to... A verb to make it present, so the more likely it is be! Most irregular verb is, the better states a thing that happened in the beginning, you take! Form of to have ( tó ) - ' I ', تو ( tó ) '. Dictionaries ( e.g for a while now, I have been curious about why present... Has no stem in the first place you to learn the root at this just! Of IE languages Matt: Dasht: the scientific study of human * language * *: the scientific of! The past stem and present, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and other have mentioned mentioned... Does n't explain why these present stems are past stem for boodan or! Verbs in all of Tajikistan, etc stems are irregular the main irregularity is that the verb a! Of human * language * * what form does it take present stem regularly by -an. This root normalized form of the verbs used very frequently both in and! It like this: this also seems much less irregular than what you proposed inhabitants, which means there more! Or hit Enter key on your keyboard several predictable patters, as you and other common.!

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